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Arno Becker

ASTRO-QUIZ - Teil 1 ( was jeder wissen muesste) :))

Startbeitrag von Arno Becker am 10.06.2002 07:58

25 Multiples Choice Questions (3points each):

1. What is the model Ptolomy designed?

a) The earth is at the center of the universe. Everything has a circular orbit, with no epicycles, and goes around the earth.

b) The earth is at the center of the universe. Everything goes around the earth with circular orbits which have epicycles to explain the retrograde motion.

c) The sun is at the center of the universe, the moon orbits the earth, and everything else orbits the sun in a circular orbit with no epicycles.

d) The sun is at the center of the universe, and everything orbits around the sun in circular orbits with epicycles which explain retrograde motion.

e) Everything orbits the sun with an elliptical orbit.


2. What is the model Copernicus designed?

a) The earth is at the center of the universe. Everything has a circular orbit, with no epicycles, and goes around the earth.

b) The earth is at the center of the universe. Everything goes around the earth with circular orbits which have epicycles to explain the retrograde motion.

c) The sun is at the center of the universe, the moon orbits the earth, and everything else orbits the sun in a circular orbit with no epicycles.

d) The sun is at the center of the universe, and everything orbits around the sun in circular orbits with epicycles which explain retrograde motion.

e) Everything orbits the sun with an elliptical orbit.


3. What is the model Kepler designed?

a) The earth is at the center of the universe. Everything has a circular orbit, with no epicycles, and goes around the earth.

b) The earth is at the center of the universe. Everything goes around the earth with circular orbits which have epicycles to explain the retrograde motion.

c) The sun is at the center of the universe, the moon orbits the earth, and everything else orbits the sun in a circular orbit with no epicycles.

d) The sun is at the center of the universe, and everything orbits around the sun in circular orbits with epicycles which explain retrograde motion.

e) Everything orbits the sun with an elliptical orbit.


4. What time of day does the full moon rise?

a) Midnight

b) 6 AM

c) Noon

d) 6 PM

e) 9 PM


5. What time of day does the third quarter moon set?

a) Midnight

b) 6 AM

c) Noon

d) 6 PM

e) 3 AM


6. What is Kepler's first law?

a) The square of the period is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis.

b) In an equal amount of time, and equal area of the orbit is covered.

c) All orbits are ellipses.

d) F = ma

e) An object at rest will stay at rest until acted upon by another force.


7. What is Kepler's second law?

a) The square of the period is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis.

b) In an equal amount of time, and equal area of the orbit is covered.

c) All orbits are ellipses.

d) F = ma

e) An object at rest will stay at rest until acted upon by another force.


8. What is Kepler's third law?

a) The square of the period is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis.

b) In an equal amount of time, and equal area of the orbit is covered.

c) All orbits are ellipses.

d) F = ma

e) An object at rest will stay at rest until acted upon by another force.


9. What object has the most volcanoes on its surface (dormant or active)?

a) Venus

b) Earth

c) Mars

d) Io

e) Mercury


10. What object has the tallest volcano on its surface (dormant or active)?

a) Venus

b) Earth

c) Mars

d) Io

e) Mercury


11. Which object has the most volcanoes which are known to be active?

a) Venus

b) Earth

c) Mars

d) Europa

e) Mercury


12. Who of the following did the most accurate observations without using a telescope?

a) Ptolomy

c) Copernicus

c) Brahe

d) Kepler

e) Galileo


13. Which of the following is not a type of energy?

a) Thermal

b) Electro-magnetic

c) Mechanical

d) Pressure

e) Nuclear


14. Which of the following did Galileo not discover or invent?

a) phases of Venus

b) 4 moons of Jupiter

c) the telescope

d) sunspots

e) the milky way was in fact many stars


15. How many significant figures are there in the following #: 0.02030

a) 2

b) 3

c) 4

d) 5

e) 6


16. When making a crater, which of the following has the most influence on its size?

a) velocity of impacting object

b) mass of impacting object

c) total energy of impacting object

d) size of impacting object

e) density of impacting object


17. What planet resembles the moon in appearance?

a) Mercury

b) Venus

c) Earth

d) Mars

e) Pluto


18. The earth?s atmosphere is comprised mostly of what element?

a) Nitrogen

b) Carbon

c) Oxygen

d) Argon

e) Hydrogen


19. The earth?s core is comprised mostly of what element?

a) Carbon

b) Oxygen

c) Nitrogen

d) Iron

e) Hydrogen


20. What is the current accepted theory about how the moon formed?

a) it was captured

b) as a result of an impact with a mars sized object

c) it was spun out of the pacific ocean

d) it formed as a binary planet with earth

e) all of the above


21. What are the Martin icecaps made mostly of?

a) frozen ammonia

b) frozen methane

c) frozen water

d) frozen nitrogen

e) frozen carbon dioxide


22. The main asteroid belt is located where?

a) it crosses Earth's orbit

b) between Earth and Mars

c) it crosses Mars's orbit

d) between Mars and Jupiter

e) between Mars and Venus


23. What is the smallest of the terrestrial planets?

a) Mercury

b) Venus

c) Earth

d) The moon

e) Mars


24. What is the closest planet to the sun?

a) Mercury

b) Venus

c) Earth

d) The Moon

e) Mars


25. In Ancient Egypt (2500 BCE), what was the north star?

a) Polaris

b) Vega

c) Deneb

d) there was no north star

e) none of the above



Short Answer Questions:


1. (20 points): What is the green house effect? Is it a good thing or a bad thing? For the 4 terrestrial planets,

rank the strength of their green house effects, and how much each planet (be qualitative) is affected by it.

2. (15 points): Name 4 types of objects you can see in the sky which are astronomical.

Comment briefly (a sentence for each is fine) on what each looks like in the sky.

3. (15 points): What is the evidence for liquid water sometime in Mars's history?

Name 2 reasons why there is no liquid water on Mars today.

Antworten:

Re: ASTRO-QUIZ - Teil 1 - die Antworten

Answers for Midterm #1:
Multiple Choice Questions:

1. What is the model Ptolomy designed?
ANS: b) The earth is at the center of the universe. Everything goes around the earth
with circular orbits which have epicycles to explain the retrograde motion.
REASON: The epicycles (little circles within the orbit) explain the yearly retrograde
movements of the planets in the sky.

2. What is the model Copernicus designed?
ANS: d) The sun is at the center of the universe, and everything orbits the sun in circular orbits
which explain retrograde motion.
REASON: Still have the epicycles, which made the model more clumpsy than it needed to be.

3. What is the model Kepler designed?
ANS: e) Everything orbits the sun with an elliptical orbit.
REASON: Kepler's 1st law. This is the model we use today.

4. What time of the day does the full moon rise?
ANS: d) 6:00pm
REASON: The full moon is opposite to the sun, so it rises when the sun sets, which is 6:00pm.

5. What time of the day does the 3rd quarter moon set?
ANS: c) 12:00 noon
REASON: each phase rises 3 hours later (8 phases, 24 hours). Each quarter is 2 phases. 3rd quarter
is 2 phases after the full moon. The full moon sets when the sun rises, which is 6 AM, so,
the 3rd quarter moon sets 6 hours later, which is at noon.

6. What is Kepler's 1st law?
ANS: c) All orbits are ellipses.

7. What is Kepler's 2nd law?
ANS: b) equal area with equal time

8. What is Kepler's 3rd law?
ANS: a) period squared comapared to the cube of the semi-major axis

9. What object has the most volcanoes on its surface (dormant or active)?
ANS: a) Venus
REASON: Venus has over 10000 volcanoes on its surface. It is not known whether they are still active.

10. What object has the tallest volcano on its surface (dormant or active)?
ANS: c) Mars
REASON: Olympus Mons towers over 75000 feet, 2.5 times taller than Mt. Everest.

11. What object has the most volcanoes which are known to be active?
ANS: b) Earth
REASON: The volcanos on Mars are dormant. Europa and Mercury have no volcanoes. It is not known whether
or not the volcanoes on Venus are still active. Even if there are some, earth probably still has more.

12. Who of the following did the most accurate observations without using a telescope?
ANS: c) Tycho Brahe
REASON: Tcyho Brahe made measurements with his eye which were accurate to 1', or 1/30th the diameter of the moon.

13. Which of the following is not a type of energy?
ANS: d) pressure
REASON: Pressure is a type of force, not energy.

14. Which of the following did Galileo not discover or invent?
ANS: c) the telescope
REASON: The telescope was invented by the Dutch from the spyglass of the Muslims.

15. How many significant figures are there in the following #: 0.02030?
ANS: c) 4
REASON: The first 2 zeros are placeholders. The 2 zeros within the 2030 part were measured (which is
why there are there) and are therefore significant.

16. When making a crater, which of the following has the most influence on its size?
ANS: c) total energy of impacting object
REASON: It is the transfer of energy which moves the ground from which the crater is left. While the mass
and velocity both contribute to the energy, and therefore crater size, it is the energy which determines
the crater (a small object moving faster can make a larger crater, or you can have a much larger object
moving just a bit slower make the larger crater).

17. What planet resembles the moon in appearance?
ANS: a) Mercury
REASON: Mercury has no atmosphere, and is covered by craters, just like the moon.

18. The earth's atmosphere is comprised mostly of what element?
ANS: a) Nitrogen
REASON: The earth's atmosphere has about 77% Nitrogen, and about 21% Oxygen.

19. The earth's copre is comprised mostly of what element?
ANS: d) Iron
REASON: Early in the earth's formation, when it is molten, the denser materials fall towards the core.
Iron is far more abundant than the other heavy elements, so it makes up most of the core.

20. What is the current accepted theory about how the moon formed?
ANS: b) as a result of an impact with a mars sized object
REASON: The other 3 just don't work for the moon's composition (which is similar to earths), and orbit.

21. What are the Martin icecaps made mostly of?
ANS: e) frozen carbon dioxide
REASON: There is some water, but that stays all year. In winter, it gets cold enough for dry ice (frozen CO2).

22. The main asteroid belt is located where?
ANS: d) between Mars and Jupiter
REASON: Jupiter would not let a planet form there.

23. What is the smallest of the terrestrial planets?
ANS: a) Mercury
REASON: Mercury is 3000 miles in diameter, and Mars is 4000 miles. Earth is 8000 miles in diameter, and
Venus is just a little smaller than earth.

24. What is the clostest planet to the sun?
ANS: a) Mercury
REASON: 89 day orbit for Mercury, Venus (the #2 planet) is twice as far away from the sun.

25. In Ancient Egypt (2500 BCE), what was the north star?
ANS: d) there was no north star
REASON: Polaris is the north star today, but since the earth precesses (wobbles) over a period of 26000 years,
it was not always so. 4500 years ago, there was no north star. Polaris was far from true north (10 degrees).
It was much like the current southern hemisphere which has no south star.



SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS:

1) What is the Greenhouse Effect? Is it a good thing or a bad thing? Rank the 4 planets by amount each is affected
by the Greenhouse effect. How much is each (be quantitative) affected?

My answer (which is a little more in depth than need be):

The key to the Greenhouse effect is absorbtion. Reflection has no part in it. Sunlight passes through the atmosphere.
While some clouds will reflect light, as does the surface, the reflected light does NOT contribute to the greenhouse effect.
The earth absorbs most of the light the sun emits toward earth. The earth the emits heat (which is infrared light emitted
via blackbody radiation). Gasses like carbon dioxide and water vapor absorb infrared light, so earth's heat is absorbed
by the atmosphere. This is the main key to the Greenhouse Effect. The atmosphere emits heat as well (for the same
reasons the earth does). This heat will be emitted in all directions, so half will escape to space, and half will reach earth.
The earth is now being heated by the sun, and by the atmosphere, so the temperature will be higher.

Without the atmosphere, the surface of the earth would be 255K. Since water freezes at 273K, without the greenhouse
effect, we would all freeze to death. Therefore, the greenhouse effect is a good thing! However, it is only good in
moderation.

Ranks (highest to lowest)
1. Venus - very thick atmosphere heats the surface a lot
2. Earth - moderate atmosphere heats the surface moderately
3. Mars - little, its thin atmosphere only heats it a few degrees.
4. Mercury - has no atmosphere, therefore has no greenhouse effect



2) Name 4 types of astronomical objects which you can see in the sky? Briefly describe what they look like.

My Answer (most points lost were from those who described what the objects were, not what they looked like):

stars - points of light which twinkle.
planets - points of light which do not twinkle, and move through the stars
comet - object with a head and two tails which can come and go
meteor (shooting star) - bright streak which only last a fraction of a second
aurora - shimmering lights in the northern or southern sky
sun - big bright ball of light which you don't want to look directly at
moon - big bright object which changes shape over the course of a month
constellations - patterns of stars with various forms

all other object types are not viewable with the naked eye.





3) What is the evidence for life on mars? Name 2 reasons why there is no liquid water on the surface of mars today?

My Answer (for evidence I wanted at least 2 for full points):

There is evidence for dried up river bed, lake beds, mud flows, huge floods, canyons (only some of which
are in fact water induced, the canals from historic drawings are created by shifts in the crust), and craters filled
in by debris.

The 2 reasons there is no liquid water on mars:
1) it is too cold. Even at the equator in the summer it says below freezing.
2) the atmosphere is too thin. If an atmosphere is too thin, water goes from solid to gas. Mars's atmosphere is right at
this limit, so if you heat the surface to the melting temperatture of ice, it will quickly evaporate if not sublime.

von Arno Becker - am 10.06.2002 07:59
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